Spanish colonialists, African slaves or indigenous Indians?
Little by little. :) But, I think, climate was not the last factor, not hot blood.
I will explain why I think so. Spanish blood is in the peoples of all Latin American countries. Well, or Portuguese, which is not better. However, not all Latin American peoples are equal in degree of "fervor". And here's what is surprising: the Indians are generally not frenzied. Quite the contrary, the Indians are the calmest of all the inhabitants of South America. However, the inhabitants of Peru, where there is more than enough Indian blood from the inhabitants, are much more active and hot than the Chileans. But in Chile, the Indians were exterminated, but not assimilated with them, as in Peru, and therefore in Chile there are much more semi-Europeans than semi-Indians, and especially purebred Indians (in Chile, the Indians showed such resistance to the conquistadors that the Spanish army was forced to retreat from Mapuche lands , Indians who inhabited southern Chile). It seemed that Chileans, thanks to the "hot" blood of the Spanish conquistadors and adventurers from other countries, should have been more "crazy" than the Peruvians. But Chile is called "South American England" because of the calm nature of the country's inhabitants, and Peru is Peru. I don’t even want to explain, to be honest. As well as about the nature of the Argentines.
The thing is that Chile has a much harder climate than the Peruvian Costa or Argentina (long desert, cold and rainy south, 80% of the country is occupied by mountains). Harder, perhaps, is the climate of Altiplano. But mostly Indians live on Altiplano, and they just do not differ in warmth of morals.
We can say that conquistadors and warm climate (Chile is an exception, but it is the coldest country in Latin America, where in some places the climate resembles the Russian one).
It unites all Hispanics in the first place, their historical origin. The formation of the Latin American peoples began during the period of great geographical discoveries in the Western Hemisphere and the development of two early European colonial empires - Spanish and Portuguese, to a lesser extent also French. The period between the XVI and XVIII centuries, when the European conquistadors conquered large areas of South America and entered into intensive contacts with the local indigenous population, became decisive. By the beginning of the XVII century, up to 200 thousand Spaniards emigrated to America, and up to 450 thousand people left Spain before 1650. By 1650, about 70 thousand Portuguese arrived in Brazil and 300 thousand blacks were imported.
The dominant, although by no means the only role in the process of ethnogenesis of the Latin American peoples was played by the Romanesque peoples of the so-called Old Romania and / or Latin Europe; therefore, modern Latin Americans are called Neo-Romanian peoples, and their area of residence is Neo-Romanian (New Romania). They consider them native or speak good Romance languages, which are descended from Latin (hence the name). The exception is only some of the Hispanics of the United States, natives of this country who, while preserving the Latin American culture and identity, have switched to English or have completely become Americanized. Another distinguishing feature is the commitment of most Latin Americans to Catholicism, although there has recently been an increase in the number of atheists, followers of Protestant churches, other religions and various sects. Latin Americans also distinguish their concentration in regions with a hot equatorial, tropical and subtropical climate.
For the most part, Hispanics are Catholic believers. A small portion are Protestants.
Unlike the North American colonies of Great Britain, where the indigenous Indian population suffered almost total genocide, in the Spanish and Portuguese colonies, the places of mass concentration of the indigenous population (Mexico, Peru) also became centers of Spanish culture, initiating the process of racial and cultural mixing. Therefore, modern Latin Americans are distinguished by a peculiar racial and genetic composition with a predominance of people of mixed origin with a variety of combinations of European, African and Native American genes. At the beginning of the 16th century, in addition to Spanish and Portuguese hidalgo men, gypsies, Jews, Arabs, Morisks deported from Spain began to arrive here, then Negro slaves from Africa were brought, later European colonists appeared from other, mainly Catholic countries (French, especially numerous Italians, Germans, Croats, etc.), the influx of immigrants from Spain and Portugal increased again (late XIX - early XX centuries)
Therefore, now the racial and genetic composition varies significantly across countries. Thus, conditionally designated white Hispanics make up the majority of the population (over 80%) in Argentina and Uruguay, but only about half the population of Brazil (53.7%) and less than 10% of the population of Mexico. In Mexico and Chile, 2/3 of the population is mestizo: in Chile with a greater admixture of European, in Mexico - with Native American blood, although the proportions vary greatly across cities and provinces within each country. For example, in the average Mexican, 58% of the genes are European (mainly Spanish), 39% are Indian and about 3% are African. Moreover, unlike the United States, racial categories are flexible and transparent, the same person can relate to several categories and move from one to another throughout his life, depending on his social status, education, social circle, etc. Thus, a significant part of the conditionally white population of Argentina has a significant admixture of Native American (about 1/3) and even African blood. The same applies to conditionally white Brazilians. Although there has never been an open institutional racism and segregation in Latin American countries, more European (light) traits are perceived as more desirable compared to Native American and African.
On the other hand, mulattoes and blacks make up about 80% of the population of the Dominican Republic, and about 40% of the population of Brazil. Autochthonous Indians still absolutely prevail in Bolivia and Peru, Guatemala and Southern Mexico, a significant part of which, however, have already adopted Catholicism and switched to Spanish.
The total number of Hispanics is about 600 million people. The largest Latin American peoples: Brazilians - about 190 million people (2008, estimate) and Mexicans - about 150 million people. (2008, estimate). They are followed by Colombians (45 million) and Argentines (40 million). A large emigrant group of Hispanic Americans is particularly notable, accounting for over 15% of the country's population or 45 million people (2007).
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