The concept of "short-distance running" unites a group of running types of athletics programs. This group of species includes running at a distance of up to 400 m, as well as various types of relay race, including the stages of sprinting. Running 100, 200 and 400 m, relay race 4x100 m and 4x400 m, for both men and women, is included in the program of the Olympic Games. Distances of 30, 50, 60 and 300 m are included in indoor competitions and in competitions of young athletes [1,5,12,14,17,18,19].
Sprint running is an integral part of a number of types of athletics (all types of jumps, all-around and some types of throwing), as well as many sports.
Short-distance running, as a rule, is characterized by the maximum intensity of running the entire distance in anaerobic mode. At distances of up to 200 m, runners strive for the minimum time to gain maximum running speed and maintain it until the finish line.
Currently, many trainers agree that the technique of sprinting is purely individual and, despite certain biomechanical characteristics, depends on the specific individual characteristics of the athlete, as well as on the levels of power and speed achieved by him. This, of course, does not exclude common to all rational elements of technology, the improvement of which they are still engaged.
Short-distance running (sprint) is conditionally divided into four phases: the start of the run (start), the start run, the distance run, and the finish [1,5,12,14,15].
Start of running (start). The sprint uses a low start, which allows you to start running faster and develop maximum speed in a short period.
For a quick exit from the start, the starting machine and pads are used. They provide solid support for repulsion, stability of the placement of the legs and the angles of inclination of the support areas. In the location of the starting blocks, four main options can be distinguished: with a “normal” start, the distance from the starting line to the first block is 1.5 - 2 feet, the same distance from the first to the second block. For beginner athletes, you can apply the alignment along the length of the leg, i.e. the distance to the first block and from the first to the second is equal to the length of the lower leg. With a “stretched” start, the distance from the starting line to the first block is increased from 2 to 3 stops, from the first to second blocks - from 1.5 to 2 stops. With a “close” start, the distance from the starting line to the first block is 1.5 feet, from the first to the second - 1 stop. With a “narrow” start, the distance from the starting line to the first block does not change, but the distance from the first to the second block changes from 0.5 feet or less. The distance between the axes of the pads is set along the longitudinal axis from 15 to 25 cm. Starting pads located close to each other provide simultaneous effort of both legs to start the run and create greater acceleration for the runner in the first step. However, the close position of the feet and the almost simultaneous repulsion by both legs make it difficult to switch to alternate repulsion of the legs in subsequent steps.
The supporting platform of the front shoe is inclined at an angle of 45-50 °, the rear - 60-80 °. The distance (in width) between the axes of the blocks is usually 18--20 cm.
Depending on the location of the pads, the angle of inclination of the supporting pads also changes: with the pads approaching the starting line, it decreases, and with their removal increases. The distance between the pads and their removal from the starting line depends on the physique of the runner, the level of development of his speed, strength and other qualities.
At the command “To the start!” The runner stands in front of the blocks, crouches and puts his hands in front of the starting line. From this position, he rests from front to back with his foot against the supporting pad of the launch pad, which is in front, and with the other foot - against the back pad.
The feet rest on the surface of the pads so that the toe of the studs touches the surface of the track. Having knelt on the back of the standing leg, the runner transfers his hands through the starting line to himself and puts them close to her. The hands rest on the thumb and forefinger, the hand is parallel to the start line. The head continues the vertical of the body, the back is flat or slightly semicircular, arms straightened in the elbow joints are located slightly wider than the shoulders or within double shoulder width. The gaze is directed at a distance of 1 m beyond the starting line.
At the command “Attention!” The runner tears the knee behind the standing leg from the support, raising the pelvis. Typically, the height of the pelvis is 7-15 cm above the level of the shoulders. The shoulders extend slightly forward, slightly beyond the start line. Runner relies on hands and pads. It is important that the athlete presses on the pads, waiting for the starting team. In this position, the angle of flexion of the legs in the knee joints is of great importance. The angle between the thigh and lower leg, resting the legs on the front block is 92-105 °, the back of the standing leg is 115-138 °. The angle between the torso and the thigh in front of the standing leg is 19–23 ° (V. Borzov, 1980). In the preparedness position, the angle of flexion of the legs in the knee joints is important.
An increase in this angle (within certain limits) promotes faster repulsion.
The position of the runner, adopted by the command “Attention!”, Should not be too stressful and constrained. It is only important to focus on the expected start signal. The time interval between the “Attention!” Command and the signal to start the run is not regulated by the rules. The interval can be changed by the starter for various reasons. This requires the runners to focus on signal perception.
Hearing a shot (or another starting signal), the runner immediately rushes forward. This movement begins with vigorous repulsion of the legs and a quick wave of the hands (bending them). Repulsion from the starting blocks is carried out simultaneously by two legs with significant pressure on the starting blocks. But it immediately develops into multi-time work. The leg, standing behind, is only slightly unbent and is quickly extended forward by the hip, with this the leg located in front straightens sharply in all joints.
The angle of repulsion at the first step from the block is 42-50 ° for qualified sprinters, the thigh of the fly leg approaches the body at an angle of about 30 ° (V. Petrovsky, 1978). This ensures a lower position of the athlete's MCTC, and the effort of the straightened leg will be directed more towards the forward movement of the runner's body. The indicated position is convenient for performing a powerful repulsion from the pads and maintaining the general inclination of the body at the first steps of the run [2,3,6,8].
Starting run. To achieve the best result in the sprint, it is very important after the start to quickly reach a speed close to the maximum in the start-up phase.
The correct and rapid implementation of the first steps from the start depends on pushing the body at an acute angle to the track, as well as on the strength and speed of the runner’s movements. The first step ends with the full extension of the leg, pushing away from the front pads, and the simultaneous lifting of the thigh of the other leg. The thigh rises above (more) the right angle with respect to the straightened supporting leg. Excessively high thigh lift is not beneficial, as the body rises upward and it is difficult to move forward. This is especially noticeable when running with a small inclination of the body. With the correct tilt of the body, the thigh does not reach the horizontal and, due to inertia, creates a force directed much more forward than up. The first step ends with the active lowering of the leg down - back and goes into vigorous repulsion. The faster this movement, the sooner and more energetically the next repulsion will occur.
The first step should be done as quickly as possible. With a large torso of the body, the length of the first step is 100-130 cm. You should not intentionally shorten the length of the step, since with equal frequency of steps, their large length provides higher speed, but there is no point in deliberately extending it.
The best conditions for increasing the speed are achieved when the CMC runner in most of the support phase is in front of the pivot point. This creates the most favorable repulsion angle, and a significant part of the efforts developed during repulsion goes to increase the horizontal speed.
With perfect mastery of the running technique and with sufficient speed of the first movements, the runner in the first or two first steps manages to put his foot on the track behind the projection of the OCMT. In the following steps, the foot is placed on the projection of the BMTC, and then in front of it.
Simultaneously with the increase in speed and a decrease in the value of acceleration, the inclination of the body decreases, and the running technique is gradually approaching the distance running technique. The transition to distance running ends at the 25-30th meter (13-15th running step), when 90-95% of the maximum running speed is reached, however, there is no clear boundary between the starting acceleration and distance running. It should be borne in mind that high-class sprinters reach the line of maximum speed by the 50-60th meter of the distance, and children 10-12 years old by the 25-30th meter. Runners of any skill and age at the 1st second of running reach 55% of their maximum speed, at the 2nd - 76%, at the 3rd - 91%, at the 4th - 95%, at 5- d-99% (L. Zhdanov, 1970).
The running speed in the starting acceleration increases mainly due to the lengthening of steps and slightly - due to the increase in pace. The most significant increase in the length of steps is observed up to the 8--10th step (by 10--15 cm), then the growth is less (4--8 cm). Sudden, abrupt changes in the length of steps indicate a violation of the rhythm of running movements. Important to increase the speed of running is the rapid lowering of the legs down - back (relative to the body). When the body moves in each step with increasing speed, an increase in flight time and a decrease in contact time with the support occur.
Vigorous hand movements back and forth are of great importance. In the starting run, they are basically the same as in the distance run, but with a large amplitude due to the wide range of the hips in the first steps from the start. At the first steps from the start, the feet are placed slightly wider than in distance running. With increasing speed, the legs are placed closer to the midline. Essentially, a run from the start is a run along two lines converging in one to the 12--15th meter of the distance.
If you compare the results of running 30 m from the start and on the move, shown by the same runner, it is easy to determine the time spent on the start and increase speed. For good runners, it should be in the range of 0.8-1.0 s [2,3,6,8,11].
Distance running. By the time of reaching the highest speed, the body of the runner is slightly inclined (72--80 °) forward. During the running step there is a change in the value of the slope. During repulsion, the inclination of the body decreases, and in the flight phase it increases.
The leg is placed on the track elastically, from the front of the foot, at a distance of 33-43 cm from the projection of the point of the hip joint to the distal point of the foot. Then there is flexion in the knee and extension (plantar) in the ankle joints. At the moment of the greatest depreciation bending of the supporting leg, the angle in the knee joint is 140--148 ° (V. Zhulin, X. Gross et al., 1981). Qualified sprinters do not fully lower the entire foot. The runner, coming to a position for pushing away, vigorously takes out his fly-leg forward and up. Straightening of the supporting leg occurs at a time when the thigh of the fly leg is raised high enough and its lifting speed decreases. Repulsion is completed by extension of the supporting leg in the knee and ankle joints (plantar flexion). At the moment of separation of the supporting leg from the track, the angle in the knee joint is 162--173 ° (V. Tyupa, 1978). In the flight phase, an active, possibly faster, reduction of the hips occurs. The leg, after the end of repulsion by inertia, moves somewhat back and up. Then, bending at the knee, it begins to quickly move its hips up and down, which allows to reduce the inhibitory effect when placing the legs on the support. Landing occurs on the forefoot.
When running a distance with a relatively constant speed, each athlete establishes the characteristic ratio of the length and frequency of steps that determine the speed of running. At a distance of 30-60 m, highly qualified sprinters, as a rule, show the highest step frequency (4.7-5.5 sh / s), while the length of the steps does not change significantly and is 1.25 ± 0.04 relative to athlete's body length (A. Levchenko, 1986). In the distance section of 60--80 m, sprinters usually show the highest speed, while in the last 30--40 m of the distance, the ratio of speed components changes significantly: the average step length is 1.35 ± 0.03 relative to the body length, and the step frequency . Such a change in the structure of running helps to achieve higher values of running speed and, most importantly, to keep it in the second half of the distance.
The steps with the right and left legs are often different: with the strongest legs, they are slightly longer. It is advisable to achieve the same length of steps with each leg, so that the run is rhythmic, and the speed is uniform. This can be achieved by developing the muscle strength of a weaker leg. This will allow you to achieve a higher pace of running. In a sprint run in a straight distance, feet should be placed with socks straight - forward. With an excessive turn to the outside, the repulsion worsens. The distance running scheme is presented in Appendix 3 [1,5,6,8,9,11].
Finishing The maximum speed in running 100 and 200 m must be maintained until the end of the distance, however, in the last 20-15 meters, the speed usually decreases by 3-8%. The essence of the finish is to try to maintain the maximum speed until the end of the distance or reduce the influence of negative factors on it. With the onset of fatigue, the strength of the muscles involved in repulsion decreases, the length of the running step decreases, and therefore, the speed decreases. To maintain speed, it is necessary to increase the frequency of running steps, and this can be done through hand movements, as we said above.
The distance run ends when the runner touches the finish line, i.e. an imaginary vertical plane passing through the finish line. To touch it faster, the runners in the last step make a sharp torso forward with the arms back. This method is called "breast throwing." Another method is used when the runner, leaning forward, simultaneously turns to the finish ribbon sideways to touch it with his shoulder. It is determined by the maximum possible removal of the MTTS forward at the time of the finish throw. When throwing on a ribbon, it is not the runner’s advancement that is accelerated, but the moment it touches the finish plane due to the acceleration of the movement of the upper body (body) with a relative deceleration of the lower one.
The danger of falling when throwing at the finish line is prevented by quickly putting the fly leg far forward after touching the finish line. A finish throw accelerates the runner’s touch on the ribbon if the runner always spends the same number of steps and makes a throw at it from the same leg, from about the same distance (for 100-120 cm). Runners who have not mastered the finish throw technique are advised to run the finish line at full speed without thinking about a throw to the ribbon.
Thus, we have come to the following results:
As the runner's speed-strength preparedness increases, the starting position can change by reducing the distance between the blocks and the first block from the starting line. This provides a greater way of applying force when straightening the legs after the start signal, as well as the combined efforts of both legs in overcoming the inertia of the rest of the body of the runner.
With the development of mobility in the joints, especially in the abduction of the thigh back, favorable conditions are created for the growth of the horizontal component of the repulsive force, and therefore, the increase in the stride length. The result is an increase in running speed even while maintaining the frequency of steps.
For the masters of sprinting, the active movement of the fly leg after the repulsion is characteristic. This ensures a faster setting of the foot with a decrease in the oncoming speed of the foot relative to the surface of the treadmill and, consequently, a decrease in the braking effect at the beginning of the reference period.
Improving the coordination of the work of the muscles of the whole body, characteristic of the best running masters, provides less fatigue and, therefore, the ability to maintain running speed at short distances to the finish line and minimize it in the “long” sprint.
High craftsmanship is characterized by the constancy of the length of steps inherent in each running distance. As a result of this, the runner ends the run with the same foot each time. This creates the conditions for a timely and effective throw to the finish line. An increase in running speed up to 7--8 m / s occurs mainly due to an increase in the length of steps, as well as due to an increase in the pace of steps over 8--9 m / s. An increase in the pace of steps at speeds of up to 9 m / s occurs due to a reduction in support time with an increase in flight time, and above 9 m / s due to a reduction in both periods.
В беге на короткие дистанции развиваются максимальные усилия, и это создает предпосылки к возникновению скованности и искажения рациональной формы движений и целесообразной координации развиваемых усилий. Напрягаются мышцы, не участвующие в выполнении беговых движений. Все это вызывает лишние энерготраты и снижает частоту рабочих движений.
The formation of proper coordination of the contraction and relaxation of the muscles of the runner’s body is negatively affected by the early start of running training from the start, and especially from the low.
How to prepare for a race from scratch
Since 1 km is the standard distance for educational institutions of different age categories, we decided to help beginners prepare for such races.
It doesn’t matter whether you are a student, a student, or an adult. If you haven’t run before, the following information is for you.
We start to prepare for 1000 meters from scratch
Make it a practice to jog 4–5 times a week. Run in the morning. The first stage is strengthening the body.
No need to immediately measure speed data. That is, it’s not right to check the minimum time you run 1000, 1500 meters and so on.
Training should be gentle and start small.
It is best to run in the morning when the streets are not full of vehicles and people. Leave home and take a quick step for about 2-3 minutes. Hesitate, wave your hands, twist your head, raise your legs high.
Next, we go jogging - slowly, slowly. Run at such a pace as much as you decide. For the first week, jogging lasting 10-15 minutes is suitable.
Practice has shown that if, due to fatigue, one step, then there will be no progress. Therefore, if you have run out of strength, and the right time has not yet expired, slow down as much as possible, but continue to simulate running movements.
For the second week, increase your running time by 2-3 minutes every day. When you reach 30–40 minutes, you are ready for further preparation.
2-3 weeks after the start of training
Your body has already learned what running is. You began to notice that when climbing stairs, shortness of breath appears less frequently and disappears faster if it does appear.
It pleases and motivates! You feel more cheerful and joyful. Still, running adds happiness in life, verified.
Now we begin to practice interval running. Each training will now be a little different.
2-3 times a week, we will try to run 100 meters with good acceleration, and then switch to the slowest run to restore breathing. We ran 100 meters, then we run for 1 minute and even our breathing. So you need to do a week.
For the second week, increase the intervals to 150 meters. On the third - up to 200 meters. Now we try to run as fast as possible.
Closely monitor the body if there are problems with the heart - limit yourself to a regular run in the morning without acceleration, consult a doctor.
If it tingles in the side, everything is in order, it’s just that your body is not quite ready for serious sprint loads.
After 6 weeks
You have to run 800 meters at a fast pace. Strong drive is not necessary, this is not a sprint, but the speed should be clearly higher than your average. Everything, comfort is over, work on time has begun. After a day, try to run 800 meters again, taking into account your own impressions of the last run.
If the last time you ran out of steam before you reached the finish line, start slower. If you still have strength - maybe you should add a little speed.
In the next week, we switch to running 1000 meters (twice a week). We try to keep the speed the same as at 800 meters.
And finally, for the next 2 weeks we practice 1,500 meters (twice a week). Once again, we note that this is not a sprint; maximum speeds here do not need to be issued.
Training at 1500 meters will allow you to run the coveted 1000 more efficiently. The body will get used to this distance, after which you can easily overtake all rivals in a class or group, showing a gorgeous result.
Training should be complete - warm-up, run, hitch. The program is simple - 5 minutes warm-up, 1,500 meters for a while and 10-15 minutes to restore breathing and hitch. We train endurance. On the rest of the days, we practice the usual easy run without acceleration.
What to do next
If you're interested, you can arrange a 3,000 meter run as a mini exam. This is the standard for physical education in universities of the Russian Federation.
In fact, you are already ready to run a kilometer, and you can easily arrange a 3 km run. By this time, your running technique has already been perfected, you feel when you need to accelerate, and when you slow down a little, you know your capabilities. This is the main thing. For an amateur, you are already good at running.
Therefore, you can begin to practice mid-distance running. For example, run every other day for 5-7 km jogging. The remaining 2 days are limited to 3 km (we agreed that the jogging will take place 5 times a week).
When you pass the standard for 1000 meters, continue to run for fun. The program will no longer include interval elements.
Another preparation option for 1000 meters
Everything can be made much simpler. There are many options for preparing for the kilometer race, each coach offers his own proven methodology. But there is one simple method that allows you to run for a time of 1500 meters, as well as withstand running for 2 and running for 3 km.
The program in this case is this: run every other day with interval accelerations. For a run lasting 30 minutes, such accelerations should be at least 5. And their distance is 100 meters.
Your body will become stronger and more durable in a month, and you can easily run for a time of 1500 meters.
Two days before the competition, do not run at all. Let your body rest and gain strength. The day before the event, you can go jogging for 10 minutes and that's it. And you do not need any interval training, strength and other exercises.
Speaking of strength training, they increase your speed well. This is useful for sprints. In our case, this is important, but not as much as on the 100 meter.
How to run 1000 meters at a time
When the time comes for passing the standard or running in competitions, you need to remember several rules for running. If you have already practiced running at 1,500 meters, let alone running 2 or 3 kilometers at a time, then a kilometer will seem to you a simple test.
Definitely have to sweat, but you are not exhausted as those who did not prepare their bodies for this.
Please note, if you need to pass the standard per kilometer, run 1,500 meters in training. If more, practice run 2 or run 3 km for a while.
Take a reserve of 500 meters in excess of the required distance. This will help develop an additional “portion” of stamina.
So, start the race with a speed greater than your average speed. But not from the sprint. Maintain this speed up to 500-600 meters, then start to accelerate. Give your best 100 meters as much as you can. Thus, you run the distance quickly.
When you ran 1500 meters, you developed additional potential in yourself. Now it is enough to accelerate well in the last 100 meters.
If you immediately run very fast, you may be enough for 500 meters. Sprints do not work at long distances, because you are unlikely to perform as a professional runner.
Did you want to drink
Before the race you can not drink a lot of liquid. But it’s also impossible not to drink at all. Take 3-4 sips. It is not recommended to drink at a distance - there is not much time. After all, this is not a marathon.
So if you suddenly want to drink, wait a few minutes. Let the idea that you finish drinking tea or water at the finish line motivate you.
The side, stomach, head can get sick. Anyone can get sick. If suddenly this happens, you need to quickly find out if you are able to run further. If so, run. The distance is short, you will spend a little time on it. You can tolerate.
If the pain is incompatible with running, you will have to abandon the race. Pain can occur due to a sharp jump in pressure, meteorological conditions, trauma, violation of diet and drinking.
Some things are hard to predict. But most can be avoided if you prepare for the competition correctly.
Medium and long distance running technique
In order to run at these distances with maximum efficiency, it is necessary to use special techniques that differ on each segment of the running route. At the beginning of the path, immediately after the start, you need to pick up such a speed that sets the general pace of running for the entire duration of the route. With an incorrectly calculated speed, you do not have to expect a good result. For example, if the speed is too high, too much energy will be spent, and there will be almost no energy left for the final segment.
During the starting acceleration, it is necessary to increase the length and frequency of the step up to 60-70 m distance. This is required in order to then make a gradual transition to the speed with which the entire distance will be run. In order to be able to gain starting acceleration and smoothly transition to the optimal running speed, long-term training is needed that will allow you to develop tactics and running techniques.
During the race, the body should be kept level, with a slight inclination forward. The legs fall on the toe, smoothly rolling over the entire surface of the foot. For a more effective repulsion from the ground, it is necessary to straighten the pushing leg completely, while performing a swing movement with a free leg. Hands should be bent at an angle of 90 °, their movement should correspond to the movement of the legs. If the technique was chosen correctly, in each phase of repulsion from the ground, the athlete receives a short-term respite, which allows him to maintain a reserve of strength to the finish line.
When 200-400 meters are left to the finish line, you will need to tilt your torso forward more, increase the frequency and step length, and also increase the speed of your hands. Crossing the finish line is done at the highest possible speed, so it requires special sprint training.
For medium-distance running to succeed, the following conditions must be met: high endurance, regular training with interval running, related training (for example, sports), periodic long-distance runs with constant acceleration, analysis and elimination of your mistakes.
Medium and long distance running requires competent training, which begins with the study and analysis of illustrative examples of running technique. After that, you need to try to run 100 meters, applying the knowledge gained. If any errors occur, it is necessary to eliminate them immediately so that they do not develop a habit.
Next, you need to learn how to move your legs and arms. Training can be carried out by analyzing and simulating the work of limbs. To do this, you need to raise your hips high, or run on toes. The distance of 30-60 meters is overcome by running with constant acceleration. Running at 200 meters at the same pace can have a good effect. In addition, jogging to a distance of 100 m will be useful, with a quick increase in speed and keeping the pace to the end of the distance.
To improve the technique of turns, you can use jogging along curved paths - for example, along a curved track or in a circle. At the entrance to the turn it is necessary to increase the steps and move your hands more actively, and when you exit the turn, you should increase the step length, reducing the intensity of movement of the hands.
The technique can be significantly improved if the training program is supplemented by running in bad weather (with strong winds or rain) or in rough terrain. Jogging with a periodic change of pace, or with constant acceleration, will be very useful.
3 km run
There are several varieties of sports standards in running. To get the first discharge, you need to run 3 km in 9 minutes. If you managed to cope with this distance in 9 minutes 40 seconds, you can qualify for the second category, and with a result of 10 minutes 20 seconds - for the third category. For schoolchildren, students serving in the army and for women, the standards are slightly reduced.
Preparation for the 3 km race is carried out through long and hard training. The ability to run 3 km in a short period of time is not easy. If a person is not prepared, such a run will be a serious test for his heart and other organs. Before starting to prepare for a 3 km race, you need to consult a doctor and strictly follow the instructions of the trainer.
In addition, to prepare for the race, you need to analyze your state of health, and especially weight. With excess body weight, you will need to make every effort to reduce it, since any extra kilogram will put pressure on the legs, and this will adversely affect health. You should also take care of strengthening the cardiovascular system. Good help in this matter will be provided by such activities as: riding a bicycle or exercise bike, swimming, boating. And, most importantly, you need to learn how to breathe properly. Most experts recommend inhaling and exhaling every 2 steps.
To successfully run 3 km and meet the standard, you need to strengthen the leg muscles. To do this, it is recommended to perform special exercises for the development of the feet, thighs, calf muscles. The most effective exercises are: squats (on two or one leg), jumping rope, swinging the press. These exercises can be done not only during preparation for training, but also during training. If 2 weeks are left before the competition, you need to completely stop general physical exercises and focus only on running training.